Constructed over a small pre-existing hill, the Herodium was a fortress for Herod to quickly flee to from Jerusalem and a luxurious palace for his enjoyment. He chose to be buried here and the mountain is the shape of a tumulus. Herod’s tomb was discovered by archaeologist Ehud Netzer in 2007. For details and photos, see these posts at the BiblePlaces Blog.
King Herod built the mountain by first erecting a double-walled cylinder with an outer diameter of 200 feet. There were seven stories in the cylinder including two or three at the top which no longer exist. Afterwards a massive fill of earth and gravel was placed against the cylinder. The four towers are located at the points of the compass.
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Herodium (Ancient Sandals) Easy to understand introduction to the site.
Herodium (Donald D. Binder) Views of the Herodium synagogue
Herodion (Atlantic Baptist University) Large aerial photograph. Also includes basic map of area and quote from Josephus.
Tomb of King Herod (BiblePlaces Blog) A series of illustrated posts on the king, the excavation, and the discoveries.