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Archaeologists have now finished a chronological mapping of Megiddo, with radiocarbon dates for the two dozen layers of habitation from the Early Bronze Age to the end of Iron II.

Archaeologists excavating a deep rock-hewn moat along the northern side of Jerusalem’s Old City walls have discovered a handprint carved into the stone.

Not all scholars agree that the name of David is on the Mesha Stele.

The Technion and the University of Haifa’s School of Archaeology and Maritime Cultures have launched a joint initiative to support cooperation between the two institutions in archaeological sciences, especially microarchaeological research.

“Benjamin Netanyahu reportedly promised King Abdullah II that the status quo on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem will be preserved.”

“Jerusalem’s Tower of David was never built to be accessible.” The Times of Israel gives the backstory on the ingenuity required to make the ancient fortress accessible to those with disabilities.

Chandler Collins writes about a significant geographical feature in Jerusalem that he calls the “Fortress Saddle.” This was the city’s most vulnerable area on its most vulnerable side.

The Mardigian Museum has opened in Jerusalem’s Armenian Quarter, documenting the community’s history and serving as a memorial to the Armenian Genocide.

“A riveting new exhibition, titled ‘Peace and War: The Assyrian Conquest of Lachish,’ will open on January 30 in the Lynn H. Wood Archaeology Museum on Southern Adventist University’s campus.” I’m not sure how much “peace” was involved in the Assyrian conquest.

Excavations at ancient Capitolias, a city of the Decapolis in modern Jordan, are shedding light on the production of glass in the Roman, Byzantine, and Umayyad periods.

A former director of the Citadel Museum in Amman, Jordan, was convicted of stealing 6,000 ancient coins and replacing them with forgeries.

Oded Lipschits will be giving a series of lectures in the UK in honor of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society’s Diamond Jubilee between February 20 and March 6. One of them will be online: “New Light on Jerusalem and its Surroundings during the Reign of King Manasseh,” on March 2. Registration required.

Preserving Bible Times has released The Bible: Its Land and Culture, Session 4, including Galilee aerial videos, cultural vignettes, and biblical culture.

Nathan Steinmeyer gives advice on finding the right archaeological dig to join. This is also the topic of an OnScript Biblical World podcast with Steinmeyer, Chris McKinny, and Kyle Keimer.

HT: Agade, Joseph Lauer, Arne Halbakken, Ted Weis, Explorator

Pool of Siloam excavations Jan 2023

Pool of Siloam excavations Jan 2023b

Excavations at the Pool of Siloam this week; photos by John Black

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Two 3,800-year-old cuneiform tablets found in Iraq give first glimpse of Hebrew precursor.”

Asshur, the ancient religious capital of Assyria, will be flooded once construction is completed on a dam on the Tigris River.

Arab News looks at evidence of early Christianity in the Arabian Peninsula.

Mohy-Eldin Elnady Abo-Eleaz looks at how kings of the Late Bronze Age dealt with various kinds of “fake news.”

A Greek blacksmith is creating replicas of ancient armor for display in museums. I saw about a dozen of these last week in the Museum of Ancient Greek Technology in Athens.

Mark I. Pinsky reviews Eric M. Meyers’s autobiography, An Accidental Archaeologist: A Personal Memoir. Only $9.99 on Kindle.

Eric Meyers is interviewed by Eve Harow on the Rejuvenation podcast.

Alex Joffe grew the readership of ANE Today from zero to 42,000 over the last decade, and now he is stepping down. This provides him with the occasion to reflect on the challenge of getting archaeologists to write for normal people.

The Met has closed its galleries for Ancient Near Eastern and Cypriot Art for a two-year, $40 million renovation project.

The H.A.P.S. summer scholarship is possibly the first crowd-funded grant aimed at helping humanities Ph.D. students – specifically, those studying the Ancient Near East.”

New release: City of Caesar, City of God: Constantinople and Jerusalem in Late Antiquity, edited by Konstantin M. Klein and Johannes Wienand (De Gruyter, 2022; $127; free download).

New release: Naming and Mapping the Gods in the Ancient Mediterranean, edited by: Thomas Galoppin, Elodie Guillon, Max Luaces, Asuman Lätzer-Lasar, Sylvain Lebreton, Fabio Porzia, Jörg Rüpke, Emiliano Rubens Urciuoli, and Corinne Bonnet (De Gruyter, $196; free download)

New release: The Scribe in the Biblical World: A Bridge Between Scripts, Languages and Cultures, edited by Esther Eshel and Michael Langlois (De Gruyter, $100)

New release: The Solid Rock Hebrew Bible – “this edition prints the entire Hebrew text (in a traditional two-column layout and an easy-to-read 13-point font, with vowel points included for readers’ convenience) and includes adjustments made to the base text (the Leningrad Codex) in over 2,500 places.” $35 per printed volume, and free download.

ASOR webinar on Jan 26: “Antiquities Trafficking in the Age of Social Media: How Big Tech Facilitates and Profits from the Digital Black Market,” featuring Katie A. Paul and moderated by Eric Cline ($12).

Video recordings from the “Yahwism under the Achaemenid Empire” conference are now available (also on YouTube).

Speakers at the online Spring Bible & Archaeology Fest 2023 include Erez Ben-Yosef, Shimon Gibson, James Hoffmeier, Chris McKinny, Gary Rendsburg, Sarah Parcak, and others.

Amélie Kuhrt died on January 2.

HT: Agade, Joseph Lauer, Arne Halbakken, Gordon Dickson, Ted Weis, Wayne Stiles, Mondo Gonzales, Alexander Schick, Charles Savelle, Keith Keyser, Explorator

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“Accumulated disquiet among Israeli archaeologists over the widespread publication of sensational claims regarding ostensibly newly deciphered, once-in-a-lifetime biblical inscriptions in Jerusalem has spilled over into an open letter.”

A recent episode of This Week in the Ancient Near East discusses the way in which new alleged inscriptions in Hezekiah’s Tunnel were announced.

Israeli archaeologists discovered the oldest hoards of silver, attesting to its use as currency some centuries earlier than previously thought. The underlying journal article is here.

Excavations at Khirbat el-Masani revealed the remains of a Byzantine monk whose neck, hands, and feet bore heavy iron rings, perhaps as a symbol of his ascetic lifestyle.

“Newly uncovered remains of fabrics from the Far East dating to some 1,300 years ago in Israel’s Arava region suggest the existence of a previously unknown ‘Israeli Silk Road.’”

The United States has returned an 8th century BC cosmetic spoon, probably taken from the region of Hebron, to the Palestinian government. This the first such repatriation of an antiquity by the US to the Palestinian Authority.

The Palestinian Authority is apparently planning to construct homes on the area of the altar on Mount Ebal.

Walking The Text has begun a mini-series on Ruth, with a number of helpful maps and illustrations.

El-Araj, possibly Bethsaida, is the latest site featured in the “Digging In” series of the Biblical Archaeology. The article includes a 6-minute video taken on location.

Hybrid lecture on Jan 26: “Byzantine Bethsaida and the House of St. Peter,” by R. Steven Notley and Mordechai Aviam, at the Museum of the Bible.

New from Eisenbrauns: Yotvata: The Ze’ev Meshel Excavations (1974–1980) The Iron I “Fortress” and the Early Islamic Settlement, by Lily Singer-Avitz and Etan Ayalon

Aaron Demsky provides a extensive discussion of the location of Rachel’s tomb, concluding that it was near the border of Benjamin and Ephraim.

GTI Tours is offering a study tour specifically designed for those who have visited Israel before, with a variety of experiences most tourists don’t have.

The BAS Scholars Series includes four lectures, with a discount for purchase of all four:

  • Mar 5: “Holy City Hotspot: Exploring Jerusalem’s Acropolis,” with Andrew Lawler
  • June 4: “A Wise Woman and a Bearded Man: Ten Seasons of Excavation at Tel Abel Beth Maacah,” with Nava Panitz-Cohen
  • Sept 28: “Free Health Care Is a Miracle: Psalm 8, Jesus, and the Jerusalem Temple,” with Amy-Jill Levine
  • Dec 6: “The Life of Jesus Written in Stone: The Earliest Commemorative Churches in Roman Palestine,” with Jordan Ryan

HT: Agade, Joseph Lauer, Arne Halbakken, Gordon Dickson, Ted Weis, Wayne Stiles, Mondo Gonzales, Alexander Schick, Charles Savelle, Keith Keyser, Explorator

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It’s that time of the year for the highly subjective exercise of determining the “top 10” of books, movies, news stories, and the rest. My contribution is my own subjective list of the most significant discoveries in the world of biblical archaeology in the last 12 months.

I spent this past year creating this list, first by culling through dozens of stories each week to identify the most important for the weekend roundups. This month I read through all of those roundups, with approximately 1,300 news items, to determine what is the best of the best. In all, it is clear that 2022 was a productive year in many ways.

I’ll note, as I usually do, that my own interests incline me to prioritize discoveries related to Israel and the Bible. The most important discoveries that didn’t make my top 10 are listed below as “noteworthy stories.” In addition, given my personal passion for guiding students throughout the biblical world, there are several sections for tourism stories and notable resources. As always, I am indebted to many fine journalists, especially those at The Times of Israel and The Jerusalem Post. I am grateful to those who pass on to me stories and links. At the end you will find links to other top 10 lists that may help you come up with your own Top 10 for 2022.

Top 10 Discoveries

1. Some 1,500 ivory fragments were discovered in the City of David, dating to the final decades of Judah’s monarchy. Only a few ivory pieces have otherwise been discovered in 150 years of excavations in Jerusalem. These beautiful ivories decorated the furniture of the wealthiest inhabitants of the capital city.

2. A seven-word inscription on an ivory comb discovered at Lachish and dated to about 1600 BC is the earliest Canaanite sentence ever found. “The inscription is a plea, a wish, or a desire that the small comb be successful in getting rid of the irritating lice.”

3. Archaeologists excavating el-Araj discovered a mosaic in the Byzantine church that mentions the “chief and commander of the heavenly apostles,” further strengthening the site’s claim to be Bethsaida, the hometown of the apostle Peter.

4. The first known depictions of Deborah and Jael were discovered in a mosaic in the Jewish synagogue of Huqoq dating to about the 5th century AD. This same synagogue has already produced mosaics depicting the tower of Babel, Noah’s Ark, the parting of the Red Sea, Samson, Daniel’s four beasts, and Alexander the Great.

5. The ancient language of Linear Elamite has been almost completely deciphered, about a century after its discovery.

6. The discovery of bullae in Jerusalem indicates that at the time of Hezekiah there were two central treasuries, one a temple treasury and the other the royal treasury of Judah located at the “Royal Building” in the Ophel excavations.

7. Imported vanilla used to flavor wine was discovered in residue on 6th-century BC jugs in Jerusalem, suggesting widespread trade connections near the end of Judah’s monarchy.

8. Archaeologists uncovered 250 colorful sarcophagi and 150 small bronze statues of gods and goddesses and other antiquities at Saqqara in Egypt.

9. A first-century villa with its own ritual bath was discovered near the Western Wall plaza in Jerusalem.

10. The first Roman military amphitheater ever found in Israel was uncovered at Megiddo.

Noteworthy Stories from Jerusalem

According to a new theory, Hezekiah’s Tunnel was fitted with a sluice gate to allow water to flow into the Siloam Tunnel and Round Chamber.

An analysis of remains found under a toilet south of ancient Jerusalem reveals that the people who used it were infected with a variety of parasites.

Gershon Galil claimed he deciphered a stone tablet discovered in Jerusalem with a curse against the city’s governor. The claim has been challenged.

Gershon Galil recently posted on Facebook that he discovered and deciphered several inscriptions in or near Hezekiah’s Tunnel that identify Hezekiah as the maker of the tunnel, give the very day of its construction, and describe other accomplishments of the king that agree with the biblical account. We now await evidence to support his extraordinary claims. (This recent public statement by archaeologists was likely motivated in part by Galil’s Facebook scholarship. See also this follow-up story by The Times of Israel.)

Excavations at the Church of the Holy Sepulcher have uncovered rock layers of a stone quarry used for the construction of Constantine’s 4th-century church.

Excavations revealed that part of Jerusalem’s Old City wall was built without a foundation.

Rocco Buttliere built a model of Jerusalem in the 1st century using 114,000 Legos.

Noteworthy Stories from Israel

A massive Roman column base was discovered near the foot of Mount Hermon.

Archaeologists found 44 pure gold coins hidden in a wall at Banias. They date to the last two Byzantine emperors before the Muslim conquest in AD 635.

Byzantine-era mosaics with four inscriptions were discovered at Hippos.

Archaeologists have uncovered a Hellenistic farmstead in eastern Galilee that was abandoned in haste. They also found a significant agricultural settlement dating to the time of David and Solomon.

Some evidence has emerged for a first-century synagogue at Chorazin.

A tomb marker for “Jacob the proselyte” was discovered in the Jewish necropolis at Beit Shearim. This inscription from the 4th century AD is rare evidence for a convert to Judaism at this popular ancient cemetery.

Archaeologists claim they have discovered a tiny Hebrew curse inscription on a folded lead tablet discarded on Mount Gerizim. This artifact has not been published, and so I can’t tell if it qualifies as a “top 10” discovery yet. For more, see the original press conference, an overview by Nir Hasson, comments by Christopher Rollston, Aren Maeir, Shawn Zelig Aster, James Davila, and Bryan Windle. (See, again, the recent public statement by archaeologists against sensational claims made absent peer review.)

Archaeologists found what they believe to be the door of a gate complex at Shiloh.

Excavations began at Kh. Tibnah, possibly Joshua’s city of Timnath-heres.

Archaeologists discovered an intact burial cave from the 13th century BC on the Palmachim Beach south of Tel Aviv. Unfortunately, the cave was plundered while it was being excavated.

Scientists have identified the earliest use of opium in a 14th century BC burial pit at Tel Yehud.

A beautiful Byzantine mosaic floor was discovered in the Gaza Strip.

A new study suggests that the mining operations in the Timna Valley and Faynan thrived in the 10th century because of good management.

A very rare papyrus fragment with paleo-Hebrew writing from the time of King Josiah and his sons was returned to Israel several decades after it was sold to an American tourist. There are questions about its authenticity.

A new study by Israeli scientists and archaeologists argues that archaeomagnetic dating will provide secure dating for archaeological material previously difficult to date. This may be especially useful for the Hallstat Plateau (800-400 BC) when radiocarbon techniques are less helpful.

Other Noteworthy Stories

Egyptian archaeologists working in Saqqara made the unusual discovery of a complete sarcophagus in its original tomb, one that belonged to the treasurer of Ramses II.

One of the iron daggers in King Tut’s tomb apparently came from a meteor that landed in Syria.

Syria announced the uncovering of a large, remarkable 1,600-year-old mosaic depicting scenes of the Trojan War.

Extraordinary 2,700-year-old rock carvings were discovered in Mosul.

Seven very fine wall reliefs from the time of King Sennacherib were discovered in Nineveh.

Archaeologists found the VIP seats of the ancient amphitheater of Pergamum.

In recent years, work has been carried out in about 40 theaters in Greece.

Remains of a bridge over the Tiber built by Emperor Nero have been exposed by historically low levels of the river.

Top Stories Related to Tourism in Israel

After 10 years of work, the alleyways in Jerusalem’s Old City are now accessible to wheelchairs and another system for the visually impaired has been installed.

A $40 million renovation project was completed this year at Jerusalem’s Tower of David Museum.

The plan to build a cable car to Jerusalem’s Old City is moving forward after numerous petitions against it were rebuffed by Israel’s supreme court.

The first bicycle tunnel in Israel was built as part of the Jerusalem Ring Path encircling the capital city.

A new visitors center being built at the Armon Hanatziv Promenade south of Jerusalem’s Old City will incorporate some impressive technology.

A Byzantine-era mosaic floor from a Christian basilica in Nahariya has been restored and will be opened to the public.

A renovation project on an ancient Samaritan priestly residential compound is the first step in making the Mount Gerizim archaeological park more welcoming to tourists.

A brush fire cleared the overgrowth at Tel Gezer but did not cause damage to the archaeological ruins.

With the return of its featured mosaic, the Shelby White & Leon Levy Lod Mosaic Archaeological Center was dedicated.

A facelift to the Ashkelon National Park included reconstruction of fifty massive marble columns, the return of five marble statues, and the display of several magnificent 4th-century AD Roman sarcophagi.

Israel plans to build hotels, guest villas, and a conference center on manmade islands in the Dead Sea.

Plans to build a red heifer farm for Christian tourists were furthered with the arrival in Israel of five perfectly red heifers.

Top Stories Related to Tourism Outside Israel

Jordan is planning to spend $100 million to develop the baptismal site at the Jordan River, including construction of a biblical village, restaurants, and a museum.

Cyprus opened its first underwater archaeological park, giving scuba divers a look at one of the best-preserved harbors from the ancient world.

The world’s largest mosaic is now open to the public underneath the newly built Antakya Museum Hotel (in biblical Antioch on the Orontes).

Restoration work on the ancient Greek theater at Laodicea was completed.

Hierapolis’s Plutonium (aka “gate to hell”) opened to tourists for the first time. The vapors are still deadly, but visitors can approach the gate “from a safe distance” to peek into the portal to the underworld.

Major progress has been made in the project to recreate a harbor for ancient Ephesus.

Notable Resources of 2022: Books

Women and the Religion of Ancient Israel, by Susan Ackerman (Anchor Yale Bible Reference Library)

Encyclopedia of Material Culture in the Biblical World: A New Biblisches Reallexikon, edited by Angelika Berlejung (Mohr Siebeck)

Under the Yoke of Ashur: The Assyrian Century in the Land of Israel, by Mordechai Cogan (Carta)

Connecting the Dots: Between the Bible and the Land of Israel, by John DeLancey (Stone Tower)

Tiglath-Pileser III, Founder of the Assyrian Empire, by Josette Elayi (SBL Press)

The Ishtar Gate of Babylon: From Fragment to Monument, by Helen Gries (Schnell & Steiner)

Excavating the Evidence for Jesus: The Archaeology of Christ and the Gospels, by Titus Kennedy (Harvest House)

Paul and Asklepios: The Greco-Roman Quest for Healing and the Apostolic Mission, Christopher D. Stanley (The Library of New Testament Studies)

King of the World: The Life of Cyrus the Great, by Matt Waters (Oxford University Press)

Rose Guide to the Feasts, Festivals, & Fasts of the Bible, edited by Paul H. Wright (Rose)

Notable Resources of 2022: Digital Resources

The Sacred Thread released an initial episode of a forthcoming series, created by Walking The Text and EvolveStudios, that “explores the original context and culture of the Bible.”

Gesher Media released the first episode from its new documentary series, “In Those Days: The Ark Chronicles.”

This was a productive year for my team at BiblePlaces.com as we released seven new volumes in the Photo Companion to the Bible series: 1 Kings, 2 Kings, Hebrews, James, 1 & 2 Peter, Jude, 1, 2, & 3 John, and Revelation (finishing the New Testament!). We also released a music video for Psalm 23.

Losses This Year

Joseph Aviram, long-time director of the Israel Exploration Society

Ghazi Bisheh, excavator of many sites in Jordan

Joseph Blenkinsopp, prolific biblical scholar

Amanda Claridge, archaeologist and author of Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide

Bruce Cresson, director or co-director of excavations at Aphek-Antipatris, Dalit, Ira, Uza, Radum, and Malhata.

Richard Freund, excavator of et-Tell (“Bethsaida”)

Norman Gottwald, Old Testament scholar

Emanuel Hausman, founder of Carta Jerusalem Publishing House

Michael Homan, theologian, archaeologist, and author

Martha Sharp Joukowsky, excavator of the Great Temple in Petra

Burton MacDonald, surveyor of Jordan

John P. Meier, author of the multi-volume A Marginal Jew

Rivka Merhav, pioneer curator of Neighboring Cultures at the Archaeology Wing of The Israel Museum

Robert Miller, archaeologist working throughout the Middle East

Other Top 10 Lists

Gordon Govier counts down his top 10 discoveries in an article for Christianity Today.

Bryan Windle’s top discoveries list at Bible Archaeology Report provides a detailed list of his criteria and explanation for each selection.

Writing for Haaretz, Ruth Schuster identifies some major “Biblical Jewish archaeology” stories of the year, as well as a separate list of “Christian archaeology” stories.

Nathan Steinmeyer lists the top ten biblical archaeology stories of 2022, in no particular order.

Greek City Times lists some significant Greek archaeological discoveries of the year.

Greek Reporter proposes the top 10 discoveries in Greece in 2022.

Art News has selected their top 12 discoveries from all over the world.

CNN lists 15 of the most exciting art and archaeology discoveries of the year.

Gizmodo rounds up the archaeological discoveries from around the world that were the “most significant, bizarre, or just plain fun in 2022.”

Business Insider identifies 12 fascinating discoveries from the ancient world.

The Archaeologist presents their top 10 most fascinating archaeological discoveries in the world in 2022 in video format.

I will add other lists here as I become aware of them.

Previous Years

You can revisit the top stories of previous years with these links:

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“An archaeological dig in Nimrud, Iraq revealed an enormous palace door that belonged to the Assyrian King Adad-Nirari III during his rule from 810-783 BCE.”

Egyptian archaeologists working in the Fayoum area have discovered the first full-color portraits of mummies found in the last hundred years.

Fine jewelry from 1400 BC has been found on a young Egyptian woman buried in the Tombs of the Nobles at Amarna.

Virginia Verardi describes evidence discovered at a site in Syria that seems to have been a concealed murder.

Smithsonian Magazine addresses the question of who owns antiquities discovered in Egypt but now in museums in Europe and the US.

“Ancient Yemen: Incense, Art, and Trade” is a new exhibit at the Smithsonian that focuses on the area’s golden age in the Greco-Roman era.

“Saudi Arabia has announced the registration of 67 new archaeological and historical sites.”

New release: Late Bronze Age Painted Pottery Traditions at the Margins of the Hittite State (£55.00; pdf free)

Zahi Hawass will be going on a “Grand Lecture Tour” of a couple dozen US cities in May and June ($79 and up).

Jordan is planning to spend $100 million to develop the baptismal site at the Jordan River, including construction of a biblical village, restaurants, a museum, and “opportunities for pilgrims to have special quiet spiritual time.”

I’ll be back with part 3 of the weekend roundup tomorrow.

HT: Agade, Arne Halbakken, Ted Weis, Wayne Stiles, Charles Savelle, Keith Keyser, Gordon Dickson, Explorator

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The Jerusalem Post has the story of a discovery that is potentially one of the top 10 of all time in biblical archaeology, if it is true. Gershon Galil, professor at Haifa University, claims that he has discovered and deciphered a couple of inscriptions in or near Hezekiah’s Tunnel that identify Hezekiah as the maker of the tunnel, give the very day of its construction, and describe other accomplishments of the king that agree with the biblical account. My hesitation is based in part on the fact that the article cites no other scholars and Galil has made some dubious claims—seeing inscriptions where others do not—in the recent past. And I’m always suspicious when a dramatic claim confirms the scholar’s previous conclusions, whether liberal or conservative. Luke Chandler has some additional information from Galil’s peer-reviewed Facebook page.

A wooden box containing 15 silver coins from the Maccabean period that was discovered earlier this year in the Judean Wilderness will go on display at the Hasmonean Museum. The IAA produced a 2-minute video of the discovery.

A rare, half-shekel coin from the Great Revolt from 66 CE to 70 CE during the Second Temple period has been discovered in Jerusalem’s Ophel excavations south of the Temple Mount.”

“The Tower of David Museum in Jerusalem recently unearthed dozens of bronze and iron arrowheads dating from around the time of the Maccabees.” They were found in a cardboard box sitting behind the air conditioner.

More than 60 tombs from the Roman period have been discovered in an ancient cemetery in the Gaza Strip.

The NPR’s “picture show” on the shrinking Dead Sea includes a number of striking photos.

Alan Rosenbaum describes his recent tour of the Western Wall Tunnels excavations, including an Israelite four-room house, the Great Bridge, and a mikveh.

Tom Powers recommends a new book entitled Nine Quarters of Jerusalem: A New Biography of the Old City, by Matthew Teller.

Israel expects to have 2.5 million tourists visit this year.

The Dan Pearl Hotel, opened near the Jaffa Gate in 1996, will be demolished to make way for a new hotel.

“Plans for a large recreational park in the Negev in southern Israel, an expected tourism hotspot likened to Israel’s answer to EuroDisney, are inching closer to the construction pipeline.”

Israel has been ranked the fifth safest country in the world for tourists to visit.

My university’s magazine has an article about my use of photographs in the classroom (page 48; or a simpler web version here). The short version: I think it’s a good idea.

HT: Agade, Arne Halbakken, Ted Weis, Wayne Stiles, Charles Savelle, Keith Keyser, Gordon Dickson, Explorator

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