Gamla

Also known as Gamala, el-Ahdab, es Salam

Gamla from the air

Aerial View

Known sometimes as the "Masada of the North," Gamla is most famous for its strong defense against the Romans in the Jewish Revolt in AD 66.  The site is bordered on all sides by deep wadis of the Golan Heights and is approachable by only one footpath from the northeast.  The earliest settlement was in the Early Bronze Age and the site was reinhabited by returning exiles from Babylon.  Herod the Great settled Jews here to populate his border cities.

 

Eastern Wall

The natural defenses of Gamla mean that only the eastern side need be protected against invaders.  In 66 A.D., Jewish rebels fortified this wall in advance of the Roman march across Galilee.  Earlier in the century, the founder of the Zealots, Judas of Gamla led an uprising in 6 A.D.  Gamaliel referenced this in the trial of the apostles as one of many unsuccessful attempts at rebellion (Acts 5:37).

Gamla from the east

 

Breach in eastern wall of Gamla

Breach in Wall

The Roman general Vespasian attacked the city with three Roman legions and after a month, they penetrated the city's defenses.  However the men of Gamla killed many of the attackers and the Romans withdrew.  A few days later, a second breakthrough was made and the Romans succeeded in capturing the city.  Josephus reports that the Roman victory cost 9000 Jewish lives.

 

Synagogue

Near the city's entrance stood the synagogue, one of the earliest known in Israel (early 1st century A.D.).  This synagogue was built in the typical "Galilean" style with three rows of columns, tiers of side benches, heart-shaped corner pillars and an alcove for Torah scrolls in the northwest corner.  A mikveh (ritual bath) was found near the synagogue.

Gamla synagogue

 

Gamla waterfall

Nahal Gamla Waterfall

This waterfall in Nahal Gamla drops 167 feet (51 m), forming the highest perennial waterfall in the country.  

Related Websites

Gamla (Christian Travel Study Program)  Summarizes the history, location, and archaeological finds associated with the site.  

Gamala (Into His Own)  A brief, encyclopedia-type article with multiple links to related words and topics for further study. 

Gamala (Walking in Their Sandals)  Gives easy-to-read information on the location, biblical significance, etc.  Features links to photographs and on-line scripture references.  

Gamla (The Israeli Mosaic)  Contains informative sections on the ancient city, archaeology, the Yehudiya Reserve, and getting there.  Links throughout allow for in-depth study. 

Gamala: Jewish City on the Golan (Israel MFA)  Discusses the archaeological remains of the ancient city and the light they shed on details of the life and death of its inhabitants.  Copy of this page at Gamla: Jewish City on the Golan (Jewish Virtual Library). 

Gamla (Donald D. Binder)  Stemming from a site dedicated to the study of the Second Temple Period Synagogues, this page spotlights the remains of the Gamla Synagogue.  Many detailed photographs and sketches. 

Flavius Josephus, "The Wars of the Jews" (Tufts University)  Links to the section of Josephus' The Wars of the Jews entitled, "The Siege and Taking of Gamala."